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Table 2 Clinical outcomes

From: No significant improvement in neuromuscular proprioception and increased reliance on visual compensation 6 months after ACL reconstruction

  Total cohort (n = 45) p-value
Preoperative Postoperative
Mean ± SD (Range) Mean ± SD (Range)
Surface area (mm2)
  Platform stable, Eyes open (PsEo) 152 ± 112 (47 – 782) 199 ± 180 (56 – 1087) 0.105
  Platform stable, Eyes closed (PsEc) 195 ± 115 (34 – 603) 214 ± 114 (45 – 555) 0.308
  Platform unstable, Eyes open (PuEo) 470 ± 246 (103 – 1459) 430 ± 166 (212 – 844) 0.547
Somatosensory ratio (PsEc / PsEo) 1.43 ± 0.71 (0.46 – 3.21) 1.39 ± 0.78 (0.27 – 3.74) 0.967
Visual ratio (PuEo / PsEo) 5.73 ± 4.13 (0.95 – 14.72) 3.07 ± 1.96 (0.58 – 9.52) 0.002
Lysholm score 66.2 ± 18.9 (19.0 – 97.0) 83.6 ± 12.8 (50.0 – 100.0) 0.001
IKDC 41.1 ± 11.4 (17.0 – 65.5) 56.8 ± 9.6 (39.0 – 79.0)  < 0.001
KOOS
  Symptoms 69.2 ± 17.0 (32.1 – 96.4) 75.6 ± 12.2 (42.9 – 92.9) 0.098
  Pain 71.9 ± 15.2 (33.3 – 94.4) 83.2 ± 13.5 (47.2 – 100.0)  < 0.001
  ADL 80.8 ± 16.1 (44.1 – 100.0) 92.8 ± 9.6 (64.7 – 100.0)  < 0.001
  Sports 38.3 ± 22.5 (0.0 – 85.0) 68.6 ± 16.1 (35.0 – 100.0)  < 0.001
  QoL 29.3 ± 20.4 (0.0 – 87.5) 57.8 ± 20.0 (12.5 – 100.0)  < 0.001
Isokinetic tests
  Extension deficit (%)    17.2 ± 17.5 (-12.6 – 82.9)  
  Flexion deficit (%)    -4.8 ± 28.9 (-54.3 – 65.9)  
  Flexion/Extension (F/E) ratio    -0.8 ± 0.24 (-2.06 – 0.47)  
Anteroposterior laxity
  Absolute (ipsilateral, mm)    5.2 ± 1.2 (3 – 8)  
  Differential (side-to-side difference, mm)    0.7 ± 0.6 (0 – 3)