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Table 3 Animal studies; animal studies with the specific aim to investigate the pathophysiology of frozen shoulder

From: The puzzling pathophysiology of frozen shoulders – a scoping review

Author Year Study Design Method used for analysis Most relevant findings
Watson [50] 2011 animal model (rats) RT-PCR TGF-β1 gene transfer induced a fibrotic condition comparable to frozen shoulder patients with similar expression levels of ECM proteins, MMPs, adhesion- and collagen proteins
Xue [51] 2016 animal model (rats) + cell culture RT-PCR and gene silencing with a lentivirus Smad4 silencing can suppress chronic inflammation and fibrosis in joint tissue by inhibiting the TGF-β/Smad pathway
Blessing [52] 2019 animal model (rats) + cell culture immunohistochemistry Local delivery of Relaxin-2 downregulates type I collagen and α-smooth muscle actin production
  1. CHL coracohumeral ligament, RI rotator interval RT-PCR real time polymerase chain reaction, TGF-β transforming growth factor beta, ECM extracellular matrix, MMP matrix metalloproteinase, α-SMA α - smooth muscle actin