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Table 2 Precision by technique for hip range of motion (proportions of measurement errors within 10° of motion capture analysis)

From: Is digital photography an accurate and precise method for measuring range of motion of the hip and knee?

  Visual estimation Goniometry Digital photography
Hip Flexion 91% 96% 96%
Hip Abduction 83% 88% 93%
Hip Internal Rotation 76% 75% 85%
Hip External Rotation 58% 53% 61%
  1. Precision of measurements or the proportion of measurement errors that were within 10°, defined as the minimally clinically significant difference by the authors, of the reference standard (motion capture analysis) for all four hip motions