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Table 1 Accuracy (Measurement Error) by Technique for Hip Range of Motion

From: Is digital photography an accurate and precise method for measuring range of motion of the hip and knee?

  Visual estimation (Mean ± SDa) Goniometry (Mean ± SD) Digital photography (Mean ± SD)
Hip Flexion 3.9° ±3.4 3.1° ±2.5 3.5° ±2.7
Hip Abduction 6.2° ±4.1 5.8° ±3.7 4.8° ±3.8
Hip Internal Rotation 7.3° ±5.7 6.8° ±5.1 5.9° ±4.8
Hip External Rotation 10.1° ±6.7 9.7° ±6.0 8.6° ±5.1
  1. Accuracy of measurements (measurement error, in degrees) calculated as the absolute value of the difference between the measurement taken by the investigator using each technique (visual estimation, goniometry, digital photography) and the reference standard (motion capture analysis) for all four hip motions
  2. a SD standard deviation