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Table 1 Features and results of the selected papers about arthroscopic debridement, arthrodiastasis and osteotomy in AOA

From: Joint sparing treatments in early ankle osteoarthritis: current procedures and future perspectives

Authors Year of publication Type of study Number of patients Inclusion criteria Treatment Follow-up (months) Clinical results Radiological results Notes
Arthroscopic debridement
Tol et al 2001 Prospective case series 57 Anterio bony impingement and moderate AOA Arthroscopic debridement 78 Excellent or good (VAS and Tegner) 65 % successful AOA reduces the success rate
Parma et al 2014 Retrospective case series 80 Anterio bony impingement and moderate AOA Arthroscopic debridement 105 Aofas score 70.7 pt at final follow-up NA Chondral lesions, age and cavus foot negatively affect the outcome
Choi et al 2013 Retrospective case series 63 Mild and moderate AOA Arthroscopic debridement 71 Aofas score 76.2 pt at final follow-up NA High BMI and chondral lesions reduce the success rate
Hassouna et al 2007 Prospective case series 80 Anterio bony impingement and moderate AOA Arthroscopic debridement 60 28 % requiring major surgery at 5 years NA AOA reduces the success rate
Arthrodiastasis
Ploegmaker et al 2005 Retrospective case series 25 Severe AOA Fixed joint distraction 84 73 % clinical benefit at 7 years NA Distraction has long term benefit
Marijnissen et al 2002 Open prospective study 57 Severe AOA Fixed joint distraction 34 Good pain control, more mobility Joint space width increased 10 % Improvement increased over the time
Marijnissen et al 2002 Randomized controlled trial 17 Severe AOA Joint distraction vs debridement 12 Good pain control, more mobility Less subchondral sclerosis, more joint space Better clinical and radiological results for arthrodiastasis
Tellisi et al 2009 Retrospective case series 25 Severe AOA Joint distraction 30 Aofas score at the final follow-up: 74 NA 91 % improved pain
Nguyen et al 2015 Retrospective case series 36 Severe AOA Fixed joint distraction 60 45 % requiring arthrodesis or replacement Progression of AOA Outcome decreased over the time
Marijnissen et al 2014 Retrospective case series 111 Severe AOA Fixed or hinged joint distraction 144 50 % of failures NA Outcome decreased over the time
Osteotomy
Knupp et al 2011 Prospective case series 94 Asimmetric AOA Supramalleolar osteotomy 43 Good clinical improvement AOA improved 10 patients failed
Colin et al 2014 Retrospective case series 83 Asimmetric AOA Supramalleolar osteotomy 42 Aofas score 73 pt for varus and 80 for valgus Improved Sidewalk sign to assess the correct indication
Kim et al 2014 Retrospective case series 31 Asimmetric (varus) AOA Supramalleolar osteotomy and microfractures 27 Aofas score 83.1 pt at final follow-up 42 % AOA advancement Microfractures may improve the results