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Table 1 Levels of biomarkers and volume in SF before the first HA injection (week 0) and fifth injection (week 5)

From: Changes in synovial fluid biomarkers and clinical efficacy of intra-articular injections of hyaluronic acid for patients with knee osteoarthritis

  Week 0 Week 5 Pvalue
HA (mg/ml) 1.48 ± 0.40 1.72 ± 0.36 <0.001
C6S (nmol/ml) 62.2 ± 30.4 49.6 ± 18.4 0.001
C4S (nmol/ml) 18.2 ± 6.3 15.9 ± 4.6 0.001
KS (μg/ml) 6.68 ± 4.25 6.18 ± 3.81 0.172
IL-6 (pg/ml) 3458 ± 9094 486 ± 1294 0.013
Viscosity (mPa · S) 48.1 ± 26.7 67.8 ± 35.2 <0.001
SF (ml) 15.9 ± 12.5 8.2 ± 8.7 <0.001
  1. SF: synovial fluid. HA: hyaluronic acid. C6S: chondroitin 6-sulfate. C4S: chondroitin 4-sulfate. KS: keratin sulfate. IL-6: interleukin-6.
  2. Data are given as mean ± standard deviation.