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Table 2 Between-groups differences (Insall with/without TTO)a

From: Insall proximal realignment with/without tibial tubercle osteotomy for recurrent patellar instability yields acceptable medium- to long-term results but risk of osteoarthritis progression is considerable

  Insall Insall with TTO P.value
Pathoanatomical risk factors on MRI n = 39 n = 5  
 LTI, mean (SD; range) 7.2 (8.4; −14-23) 4.3 (8.6; −14-13) n.s
 TT-TG distance, mean (SD; range) 15.0 (4.8; 7–24) 20.2 (4.9; 16–25) p < 0.05
 Caton - Deschamps Index, mean (SD; range) 1.2 (0.2; 0.9–1.7) 1.1 (0.2; 0.9–1.4) n.s
Outcomes n = 41 n = 5  
 Postoperative recurrent patellar dislocation (%) 12.2 0 n.s
 Reoperations (%) 14.6 20.0 n.s
Patient reported outcome measurements n = 37 n = 5  
 BPII 2.0 (SD; range) 60.9 (19.0; 26–98) 57.1 (14.9; 45–82) n.s
 Kujala (SD; range) 76.5 (13.4; 52–100) 67.2 (22.0; 40–93) n.s
 VAS of satisfaction (SD; range) 77.3 (26.4; 10–100) 86.0 (23.7; 44–100) n.s
  1. aSD Standard deviation, LTI Lateral trochlear inclination, TT-TG Tuberositas tibia-trochlear groove, BPII Banff Patella Instability Instrument, VAS Visual analogue scale