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Table 1 Characteristics of Included Studies

From: A narrative review of the last decade’s literature on the diagnostic accuracy of septic arthritis of the native joint

Author Test Evaluated Subjects (N, Gender, Mean age) Reference Standard
Berthoud (2020) [3] Lactate, Glucose, Lactate/Glucose Ratio 233
151 males
mean age 61.2
Newman’s Criteria
1) pathogen isolated from synovial fluid
2) pathogen isolated from blood culture with typical clinical presentation for arthritis
3) arthrocentesis revealed purulent synovial fluid in combination with presence of typical clinical presentation for septic arthritis, absence of crystals, and absence of other suitable diagnosis
Sigmund (2019) [26] mPCR, synovial culture 72
39 males
mean age 64
1) Newman’s Criteria
2) Pathologic features of septic arthrtitis and leukocyte count > 50,000 or PMNs > 90% in synovial fluid
Chouk (2019) [5] WBC, CRP, Procalcitonin 98
51 males
mean age 65.2
Newman’s Criteria
Shu (2019) [25] Synovial lactate 39
28 males
mean age 51
1) Positive synovial fluid culture
2) Septic arthritis diagnosed by institution orthopedists with surgical intervention and IV antibiotics given during hospital stay
Baillet (2019) [1] Calprotectin 74
38 males
mean age 70.4
Bacteria in synovial culture or blood culture without crystals present
Morgenstern (2018) [15] SF leuk w/ diff, PCR, and microcalorimetry 57
31 males
mean age 62
Positive synovial fluid culture
1) local clinical signs and symptoms,
2) increased SF leukocyte count and
3) exclusion of noninfectious causes
Pavic (2018) [20] Highest recorded temp w/I 24 h, hemoglobin, WBC, platelet, CRP, ESR, Urate, Syn total leuk, Syn total eryth, syn tot polymorphos, syn tot mononucs, gender, symptom duratioin, features of sepsis, presence of sweats, presence of chills/rigors, joint swelliing, joint erythema, joint warmth, joint tenderness to palpatoin, joint ROM restriction 165
119 males
mean age 59.35
Positive synovial fluid culture
Ferreyra (2017) [6] ALC, ANC, neutrophil differential, crystals 208
125 males
mean age 59.6
Pyogenic organism in joint fluid or blood samples
Borzio (2016) [4] ESR, serum WBC, syn WBC, neutrophils, lymphocytes, temp 458 (gender, age not given) Positive synovial fluid culture
Paosong (2015) [18] Procalcitonin 75 no gender, age given Newman’s Criteria
Lenski (2014)1 [9] IL6, Synovial Lactate 119
54 males
mean age 69.9
Positive synovial fluid culture
Omar (2014) [17] Leukocyte Esterase and Glucose Strips 146
64 males
mean age 59
1) A pathogen was isolated from the synovial fluid
2) A pathogen was isolated from a source other than synovial fluid and the clinical presentation was typical of septic arthritis
3) The synovial fluid was turbid, and crystals were absent.
Baran (2014) [2] WBC, %PMNs 96
59 males
mean age 47
Positive synovial fluid culture
Lenski (2014)2 [9] Serum markers (WBC, CRP, UA), synovial markers (lactate, glucose, UA, LDH, WBC, tot prot, IL 6) 82
47 males
mean age 72.4
Positive synovial fluid culture
Talebi-Taher (2013) [28] serum/synovial procal, serum IL-6, TNF-a, CRP, ESR, synovial WBC and PMN % 75,
41 males
mean age 52.2
1) Purulent material in the joint space with isolation of a bacterial pathogen from the joint fluid
2) Positive gram stain