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Table 1 Primers Selected for PCR Analysis (from PrimerBank)

From: Prolotherapy agent P2G is associated with upregulation of fibroblast growth factor-2 genetic expression in vitro

Gene Relevance to cartilage Primer Sequence
FGF-2 Growth factor regulating chondrogenesis and proliferation [12]. Forward: TTAAACGAGTCTTCAAGGTGGTG
Reverse: GTCCCCAAAGCTCAGGTACTG
CCND-1 Directly promotes the G1/S transition of the cell cycle [66] Forward: GCGTACCCTGACACCAATCTC
Reverse: CTCCTCTTCGCACTTCTGCTC
IGF-1 Growth factor regulating proliferation, bone mineralization, and cartilage ECM production [30, 35, 41] Forward: AGAGGCTACCCGCCTAGTTC
Reverse: GTACGGAGTAAACACCTGCTC
TGF-β1 Growth factor regulating proliferation and bone formation [35, 59] Forward: CTGGACTCATCGCAAACACAA
Reverse: AGGAAGCCTTTGACTTCTGTCTA
BMP-2 Osteoblast differentiation and mineralization [35, 57] Forward: GGGACCCGCTGTCTTCTAGT
Reverse: TCAACTCAAATTCGCTGAGGAC
STAT-1 Transcription factor likely involved in mediating FGFR3 [44] Forward: TCACAGTGGTTCGAGCTTCAG
Reverse: GCAAACGAGACATCATAGGCA
RPL13A Housekeeping control gene [53] Forward: CCCTCCACCCTATGACAAGA
Reverse: TTCTCCTCCAGAGTGGCTGT
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