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Table 2 Association studies; studies investigating the association between frozen shoulder and a co-morbidity, focussed on the pathophysiologic mechanism

From: The puzzling pathophysiology of frozen shoulders – a scoping review

Author Year Study Design n FS n controls analysis method Most relevant findings
Bunker [35] 1995 case series 43 43 peripheral blood samples Fasting serum triglyceride and cholesterol levels were significantly elevated in frozen shoulder patients
Mullet [36] 2007 case control 15 15 glenohumeral joint aspirate, in vitro cell culture Proliferation of cultured human fibroblast cells was significantly increased by stimulation of growth factors from joint aspirate of frozen shoulder patients
Lubis [37] 2013 case control 50 50 peripheral blood samples MMP1 and MMP2 levels were significantly lower, while TIMP1, TIMP2 and TGF-β1 were higher in frozen shoulder patients compared to controls
Austin [38] 2014 case control 150 NHANES nationwide study patient chart review A relationship is suggested between systemic inflammation with hyperglycaemia and hypertension and frozen shoulder
Huang [39] 2014 cohort 162 Longitudinal health insurance database ICD-9-CM codes Hyperthyroid patients have a 1.22 fold higher risk to develop frozen shoulder compared to the general population in Taiwan
Sung [40] 2014 case control 300 900 peripheral blood samples Hypercholesterolemia, and inflammatory lipoproteins have a significant association with frozen shoulder
Booker [41] 2017 case control 20 26 capsular biopsies for microbiological culture No correlation was found between the incidence of P. Acnes and frozen shoulder
Chan [42] 2017 retrospective cohort 197 24,220 peripheral blood samples Cumulative HbA1c was (dose dependent) associated with an increased incidence adhesive capsulitis
Chen [43] 2017 case control 42 50 peripheral blood samples - ELISA IL-1β was expressed at higher levels in frozen shoulder patients and is associated with susceptibility of frozen shoulder
Holte [44] 2017 case control 100 73 skin biopsies - liquid chromatography mass spectometry Joint stiffness was associated with long term HbA1c and AGEs
Schiefer [45] 2017 case control 93 151 peripheral blood samples Hypothyroidism was significantly more prevalent in frozen shoulder patients than in controls. A correlation between TSH levels with the severity of frozen shoulders was suggested
Gumina [46] 2018 prospective observational 27 genome database peripheral blood samples - PCR APO-A1-G75A lipoprotein polymorfism was found as a risk factor for the severity of frozen shoulder
Kalson [47] 2018 cohort 549 5989 (Twins UK registry) qPCR Frozen shoulder patients had a significant relation with telomere length. It is suggested that telomere repair defects contribute to joint fibrosis
Park [48] 2018 case control 37 222 peripheral blood samples Inflammatory lipoproteins are associated with adhesive capsulitis accompanied by diabetes
Cohen [49] 2019 case control 186 600 peripheral blood samples - genotyping Certain genetic variants, SNPs of MMP13, MMP 9 and TGFβ1 were identified as independent risk factors for frozen shoulder
  1. PCR polymerase chain reaction, ELISA enzyme linked immune sorbent assay, TGF-β transforming growth factor beta, AGE advanced glycation end product, MMP matrix metalloproteinase, TIMP tissue Inhibitor of Metallo Proteinases, TSH thyroid stimulating hormone, SNP single nucleotide polymorphism, IL-1β Interleukin-1β
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