Skip to main content


Fig. 2 | Journal of Experimental Orthopaedics

Fig. 2

From: Absence of cytotoxic and inflammatory effects following in vitro exposure of chondrogenically-differentiated human mesenchymal stem cells to adenosine, lidocaine and Mg2+ solution

Fig. 2

Effect of saline, ALM and TXA solutions on chondro-MSC viability, where cell viability is defined as the mean absorbance of treated (saline, ALM, TXA) cells normalised to the mean absorbance of untreated (culture media only) cells. a Compared to 0.9% saline, viability was significantly greater in cultures exposed to ALM solution for 1 h (P = .045, n = 13). b Increasing lidocaine concentrations within the ALM preparation to 30 mM (AL30M) and 60 mM (AL60M) resulted in significantly reduced viability (P < .001, n = 6, # compared to saline; ^ compared to ALM). c There were no significant differences in chondrocyte viability at 1 and 4 h exposure of chondrocytes to ALM solution. d No significant differences were observed between 0.9% and 1.3% saline (n = 6). e Compared to normal saline (0.9%), addition of Mg2+ significantly improved cell viability (P = .043, n = 11). f No significant differences were observed in the viability of cultures exposed to ALM solution or TXA for 1 (P = .47) or 4 h (P = .49; n = 5). Data is expressed as mean ± S.E.M. ALM, adenosine, lidocaine, and magnesium; MgSO4, magnesium sulphate; MSC, mesenchymal stem cells; TXA, tranexamic acid

Back to article page