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Table 1 Knee position at the start of the reduction event of the pivot shift test and examiner-induced motion during the reduction event (calculated as difference Δ between joint position at the start and at the end of the reduction event of the pivot shift) in the high grade laxity specimen and the low grade laxity specimen based on the Grood/Suntay coordinate system. Values are represented as average ± standard deviation

From: Influence of knee position and examiner-induced motion on the kinematics of the pivot shift

DOF Specimen Starting position Examiner-induced motion
Internal/External rotation (°) (+ = internal rotation, − = external rotation) High grade laxity 28.7 ± 15.5 * − 19.3 ± 7.9*
Low grade laxity 11.4 ± 5.5 * − 10.0 ± 9.2*
Flexion (°) High grade laxity 34.9 ± 9.1
Low grade laxity 34.7 ± 7.8
Varus/Valgus rotation (°) (+ = varus, − = valgus) High grade laxity −4.8 ± 8.7 12.9 ± 6.8 *
Low grade laxity −2.3 ± 22.2 10.3 ± 6.7 *
Anterior/Posterior translation (mm) (+ = anterior, − = posterior) High grade laxity −30.9 ± 14.7 −16.1 ± 10.5
Low grade laxity − 30.4 ± 15.9 −14.3 ± 35.9
Distal/Proximal translation (mm) (+ = distal, − = proximal) High grade laxity −23.1 ± 17.5 − 44.8 ± 13.6 *
Low grade laxity −21.9 ± 19.8 − 24.5 ± 10.9 *
Medial/Lateral translation (mm) (+ = medial, − = lateral) High grade laxity −11.2 ± 14.9 * − 12.6 ± 6.1 *
Low grade laxity −5.7 ± 5.1 * − 5.4 ± 6.6 *
Anterior translation of lateral knee compartment (mm) High grade laxity 49.9 ± 13.5 17.3 ± 8.8 *
Low grade laxity 50.9 ± 8.6 8.8 ± 10.5 *
  1. * p < 0.05