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Table 1 Comparison of minimum significant difference between methods of measurement (standard deviation in degrees between measurements, 1.96 x standard deviation used for minimum significant difference)

From: Accuracy and reliability of knee goniometry methods

User comparison Standard deviation p 1.96 x SD
Visual Estimation 8.94 0.996 14.31
Short arm goniometer 8.89 0.999 14.23
Long arm goniometer 4.91 0.973 9.62
Smartphone app 5.98 0.966 11.72
Halo Digital Goniometer 2.97 0.983 5.83