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Table 2 Examples of commercial products for cartilage repair

From: Orthopaedic regenerative tissue engineering en route to the holy grail: disequilibrium between the demand and the supply in the operating room

Product Company Biomaterial + Cells References
Bioseed-C BioTissue Technologies (Freiburg, Germany) Polylactin/polydiaxanon/fibrin + autologous chondrocytes (Zeifang et al. 2010; Ossendorf et al. 2007; Kreuz et al. 2011)
Chondrosphere (ACT3D-CS/ARTHROCELL 3D) Co.don (Teltow, Germany) No scaffold + Autologous chondrocytes (Becher et al. 2017; Fickert et al. 2012; Siebold et al. 2018)
CaReS-1S Arthro Kinetics Biotechnology (Krems, Austria) Murine (rat tail) type-I collagen hydrogel + autologous chondrocytes (Petri et al. 2013; Schneider et al. 2011)
Biocart II Histohenics (Waltham, Massachusetts) Fibrin/hyaluronic acid + autologous chondrocytes (Eshed et al. 2012; Nehrer et al. 2008)
Cartipatch Tissue Bank of France (Lyon, France) Agarose/alginate hydrogel + autologous chondrocytes (Selmi et al. 2008)
NeoCart Histogenics (Waltham, Massachusetts) Bovine type-I collagen + autologous chondrocytes (Anderson et al. 2017; Crawford et al. 2012; Crawford et al. 2009)
RevaFlex (DeNovo ET) Isto Technologies (St. Louis, Missouri) No scaffold + allogeneic juvenile chondrocytes (McCormick et al. 2013)
Novocart 3D TETEC Tissue Engineering Technologies (Reutlingen, Germany) Bovine type-I collagen/chondroitin sulphate + autologous chondrocytes (Niethammer et al. 2014; Zak et al. 2014; Niethammer et al. 2017)