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Table 3 Physical examination and MRI features indicating collateral injury in 52 patients with ACL injury with a positive and negative dial test

From: Rater agreement reliability of the dial test in the ACL-deficient knee

  positive dial testa (N = 16) negative dial testa (N = 36)
varus gappinga,b
 grade A 10 (62.5%) 35 (97.2%)
 grade B 4 (25%) 1 (2.8%)
 grade C 2 (12.5%)
 grade D
valgus gappinga,b
 grade A 10 (62.5%) 30 (8.3%)
 grade B 4 (25%) 6 (16.7%)
 grade C 2 (12.5%)
 grade D
LCL on MRI
 intact 15 (93.8%) 31 (86.1%)
 sprain 5 (13.9%)
 partial rupture 1 (6.3%)
 rupture
MCL on MRI
 intact 11 (68.8%) 29 (80.6%)
 sprain 2 (12.5%) 5 (13.9%)
 partial rupture 1 (2.8%)
 rupture 3 (18.8%) 1 (2.8%)
  1. aAssessed by either the blinded examiner and/or orthopaedic surgeon
  2. bGrade A (normal; 0–2 mm), grade B (nearly normal; 3–5 mm), grade C (abnormal; 6–10 mm), grade D (severely abnormal; > 10 mm), according to the 2000 IKDC objective knee examination score