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Table 1 Summary of scaffold-free cell-based therapies for cartilage repair

From: Scaffold-free tissue engineering for injured joint surface restoration

Authors Journal Year Experimental Model Scaffold-free Technique Shape Cell Source Matrix Amount of Cells Defect Size (in vivo) Graft fixation (in vivo)
Adkisson HD Clin Orthop Relat Res 2001 in vitro High-density in Monolayer Disc Chondrocyte Catilage-like 2 × 105/cm2 per plate N/A N/A
Mainil-Varlet P, et al. Osteoarthritis Cartilage 2001 Minipig Bioreactor Spheroid Chondrocyte Catilage-like 2 × 107 4 mm diameter(Full-thickness cartilage defect) Press-fit
Anderer U, et al. J Bone Miner Res 2002 in vitro Self Aggregating Spheroid Chondrocyte Catilage-like 2 × 105 N/A N/A
Masuda K, et al. J Orthop Res 2003 in vitro Alginate Recovered Chondrocyte Method Sheet Chondrocyte Catilage-like 4 × 106per mL N/A N/A
Lu Y, et al. J Knee Surg 2005 Sheep High-density in Monolayer Disc Chondrocyte Catilage-like 2 × 105/cm2 per plate 5.5 mm diameter 400–500 μm depth Suture
Stoddart MJ, et al. J Cell Mol Med 2006 in vitro Cell Pellet After Culture in Alginate Disc Chondrocyte Catilage-like 4 × 106per mL N/A N/A
Stoddart MJ, et al. Biotechnol Bioeng 2006 in vitro Cell Pellet After Culture in Alginate Spheroid Chondrocyte Catilage-like 4 × 106per mL N/A N/A
Kaneshiro N, et al. Biochem Biophys Res Commun 2006 in vitro Layered Chondrocyte Sheet Sheet Chondrocyte Catilage-like 1 × 104per cm2 N/A N/A
Hu JC, et al. Tissue Eng 2006 in vitro High-density in Monolayer Disc Chondrocyte Catilage-like 5.5 × 106 N/A N/A
Park K, et al. Artificial Organs 2006 Pig High-density in Monolayer Disc Chondrocyte Catilage-like 1.9 × 105/cm2per plate 6 mm diameter 3–4 mm depth Bovine collagen gel
Brehm W, et al. Osteoarthritis Cartilage 2006 Goat Bioreactor Disc Chondrocyte Catilage-like 2 × 107 6 mm diameter 0.8 mm depth Periosteal falp, PRP, Fibrin
Hayes AJ, et al. J Histochem Cytochem 2007 in vitro High-density in Monolayer Sheet Chondrocyte Catilage-like 6 × 106 N/A N/A
aAndo W, et al. Biomaterials 2007 Pig High-density in Monolayer Sheet Synovial MSC Collagen I, III-rich 4 × 105/cm2per plate 8.5 mm diameter2 mm depth Nether glue nor suture
Murdoch AD, et al. Stem Cells 2007 in vitro Transwell Culture Disc Bone Marrow MSC Catilage-like 5 × 105 N/A N/A
aAndo W, et al. Tissue Eng Part A 2008 in vitro High-density in Monolayer Sheet Synovial MSC Catilage-like 4 × 105/cm2per plate N/A N/A
Ofek G, et al. ProS One 2008 in vitro High-density in Monolayer Spheroid Chondrocyte Catilage-like 5.5 × 106 N/A N/A
Nagai T, et al. Tissue Eng Part A 2008 Rabbit High-density in Monolayer Disc Chondrocyte Catilage-like 6 × 106 5 mm diameter3 mm depth Nether glue nor suture
Jubel A, et al. Am J Sports Med 2008 Sheep Cell Pellet After Culture in Alginate Disc Chondrocyte Catilage-like 4 × 106 per mL 4 mm diameter(Full-thickness cartilage defect) Periosteal flap
Schubert T, et al. Int J Mol Med 2009 Mouse Self Aggregating Spheroid Chondrocyte Catilage-like 2 × 105 5 mm diameter3-4 mm depth(Human cartilageco-implant model) Nether glue nor suture
Lewis PB, et al. J Knee Surg 2009 Goat High-density in Monolayer Disc Chondrocyte Catilage-like 2 × 105/cm2per plate 4 or 6 mm diameter Fibrin glue
aShimomura K, et al. Biomaterials 2010 Pig High-density in Monolayer Sheet Synovial MSC Collagen I, III-rich 4 × 105/cm2per plate 8.5 mm diameter2 mm depth Nether glue nor suture
Kraft JJ, et al. Cartilage 2011 in vitro Self Aggregating Disc Chondrocyte Catilage-like 2 × 107per mL N/A N/A
Zhang B, et al. Tissue Eng Part C 2011 in vitro Self Aggregating Round or Oval Bone MarrowMSC Catilage-like 2.5 × 107per mL N/A N/A
Maeda S, et al. J Biosci Bioeng 2011 in vitro Culture on Membrane (polyethylene terephthalate) Disc Bone MarrowMSC Catilage-like 3.1 × 106 N/A N/A
Cheuk YC, et al. J Orthop Res 2011 Rabbit Pellet Culture Spheroid AllogenicChondrocyte Not assessed 5 × 105 3 mm diameter3 mm depth Press-fit
Yoshioka T, et al. J Tissue Eng Regen Med 2011 Rabbit Rotatory Culture(Bioreactor) Spheroid Bone MarrowMSC Mainly hyaline-like appearance 1.5 - 3.0 × 107 5 mm diameter4 mm depth Nether glue nor suture
Qu C, et al. Cell Tissue Res 2012 in vitro Transwell Culture Disc Chondrocyte Catilage-like 6 × 106 N/A N/A
aAndo W, et al. Eur Cell Mater 2012 Pig High-density in Monolayer Sheet Synovial MSC Collagen I, III-rich 4 × 105/cm2per plate 8.5 mm diameter2 mm depth Nether glue nor suture
Ebihara G, et al. Biomaterials 2012 Minipig Layered Chondrocyte Sheet Sheet Chondrocyte Catilage-like 5 × 104per cm2 6 mm diameter5 mm depth Suture
Sato Y, et al. J Biosci Bioeng 2013 in vitro Culture on Membrane (polyethylene terephthalate) Disc Bone MarrowMSC Catilage-like 1.86 × 106 N/A N/A
Brenner JM, et al. Biotechnol Prog 2013 in vitro Bioreactor Sheet Chondrocyte Catilage-like 2 × 104 N/A N/A
Giardini-Rosa R, et al. Tissue Eng Part A 2014 in vitro Bioreactor Sheet Chondrocyte Catilage-like 6.5 or 13 × 103per cm2 N/A N/A
Mohanraj B, et al. J Biomech 2014 in vitro High-density in Monolayer Disc Chondrocyte Catilage-like 1 × 106 N/A N/A
Liu T, et al. Tissue Eng Part A 2014 in vitro Self Assembling Disc Fat Pad-derivedStem Cell Catilage-like 3.8 × 106 N/A N/A
Ylärinne JH, et al. Cell Tissue Res 2014 in vitro Transwell Culture Disc Chondrocyte Catilage-like 6 × 106 N/A N/A
Oda K, et al. J Orthop Sci 2014 Rabbit High-density in Monolayer Disc Chondrocyte Catilage-like 6 × 106per cm2 4 mm diameter(Osteochondral defect) Not addressed
Ishihara K, et al. J Orthop Surg Res 2014 Rabbit Spheroid Formation Cylinder Bone MarrowMSC Not stained with Safranion O 4 × 104per well 4.8 mm diameter4-5 mm depth Nether glue nor suture
Brenner JM, et al. Artificial Organs 2014 Rabbit Bioreactor Sheet Chondrocyte Catilage-like 2 × 104 4 mm diameter(Chondral only defect) Fibrin glueand Suture
aFujie H, et al. J Biomech 2015 Pig High-density in Monolayer Sheet Synovial MSC Collagen I, III-rich 4 × 105/cm2per plate 8.5 mm diameter2 mm depth Nether glue nor suture
Yamashita A, et al. Stem Cell Reports 2015 Minipig Staged Differentiation Media Spheroid iPSC Catilage-like 1-2 × 105 Not addressed Fibrin glue
He P, et al. Acta Biomater 2016 in vitro Culture on Alginate-based Micro-cavity Hydrogel Disc iPSC Catilage-like 1 × 107per mL N/A N/A
Islam A, et al. Eur Cell Mater 2016 in vitro Pellet Culture Spheroid Umbilical Cord MSC Catilage-like 5 × 104 N/A N/A
aYasui Y, et al. Tissue Eng Part A 2016 in vitro High-density in Monolayer Sheet Synovial MSC Catilage-like 4 × 105/cm2per plate N/A N/A
Kimura T, et al. Tissue Eng Part A 2016 in vitro Staged Differentiation Media Spheroid iPSC Catilage-like 1-2 × 105 N/A N/A
Bartz C, et all. J Transl Med 2016 ex vivo Self Aggregating Spheroid Chondrocyte Catilage-like 2 × 105 4 mm diameter Nether glue nor suture
aKoizumi K, et al. OsteoarthritisCartilage 2016 Rat High-density in Monolayer Sheet Synovial MSC Collagen I, III-rich 4 × 105/cm2per plate 1.5 mm diameter1 mm depth Nether glue nor suture
Itokazu M, et al. Cartilage 2016 Rat Culture on Membrane (polyethylene terephthalate) Disc Bone MarrowMSC Catilage-like 1.86 × 106 2 mm diameter1 mm depth Fibrin glue
Becher C, et al. J Orthop Surg Res 2017 Clinical Self Aggregating Spheroid Chondrocyte Catilage-like 2 × 105 4 - 10 cm2ICRS grade III or IV Not addressed
  1. MSC mesencymal stem cell, PRP platelet rich plasma, iPSC induced pluripotent stem cell
  2. a:Our study