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Table 4 Precision by technique for knee range of motion (proportions of measurement errors within 10° or 5° of motion capture analysis)

From: Is digital photography an accurate and precise method for measuring range of motion of the hip and knee?

  Visual Goniometer Photo
Knee Flexion (<10°) 92% 94% 90%
Knee Extension (<5°) 49% 50% 74%
  1. Precision of measurements or the proportion of measurement errors that were within 10° (for elbow flexion) or 5° (for elbow extension), defined as the minimally clinically significant difference by the authors, of the reference standard (motion capture analysis) for both knee motions