Skip to main content

Table 3 Accuracy (measurement error) by technique for knee range of motion

From: Is digital photography an accurate and precise method for measuring range of motion of the hip and knee?

  Visual estimation
(Mean ± SDa)
(Mean ± SD)
Digital photography
(Mean ± SD)
Knee Flexion 5.2° ±3.9 4.3° ±3.1 5.2° ±3.4
Knee Extension 5.2° ±2.6 4.7° ±2.5 3.5° ±2.3
  1. Accuracy of measurements (measurement error, in degrees) calculated as the absolute value of the difference between the measurement taken by the investigator using each technique (visual estimation, goniometry, digital photography) and the reference standard (motion capture analysis) for both knee motions
  2. a SD standard deviation