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Table 2 The separations of the Achilles tendon repair models with the 4 phases of loading, and the mode of failure

From: Tendon end separation with loading in an Achilles tendon repair model: comparison of non-absorbable vs. absorbable sutures

Specimen number Strand XSectional Area/mm 2 Initial Separation (10 N)/mm Separation (10 cycles 100 N)/mm Separation (100 cycles 100 N)/mm Separation (100 cycles 190 N)/mm Ultimate Tensile Failure/N Mode of Failure
1 4 143.3 2.9 6.8 10.3 20.5 241 Pull out jig
2 4 170.5 0 6.7 9.3 17.0 405 Distal pull out
3 4 192.8 0 3.1 5.3 15.4 399 Knot Failure
4 4 222.3 0 7.1 10.2 19.6 411 Pull out jig
5 4 166.3 3.0 6.0 8.6 16.6 464 Suture snap
6 4 188.3 0 5.6 7.4 15.3 508 Distal pull out
Mean(SD)    1.0(1.5) 5.9(1.5) 8.5(1.9) 17.4(2.2) 465(27)  
1 6 221.4 3.9 7.7 13.7 23.5 321 Pull out jig
2 6 131.9 0 2.6 5.4 12.8 419 Proximal pull out
3 6 245.9 0 2.5 3.4 9.4 462 Pull out jig
4 6 173.8 0 5.4 8.7 17.7 567 Distal pull out
5 6 193.8 0 3.7 5.1 13.5 464 Knot Failure
6 6 214.5 0 2.6 14.5 16.3 638 Pull out jig
7 6 207.2 0 3.6 6.9 17.3 506 Pull out jig
Mean(SD)    0.6(1.5) 4.0(1.9) 8.2(4.3) 15.8(4.5) 543(50)  
1 8 207.8 1.8 10.8 13.8 27.1 286 Pull out jig
2 8 212.6 0 8.5 10.7 21.6 506 Distal pull out
3 8 176.3 0 12.6 20.2 Failed   Knot failure
4 8 229.8 0 12.4 17.7 Failed   Knot failure
5 8 201.1 2.4 14.8 19.1 31.7 591 Distal pull out
6 8 233.6 0 10.0 13.3 26.2 526 Pull out jig
Mean(SD)    1.1(1.4) 11.0(2.7) 14.2(3.5) 26.6(4.1) 422(81)  
  1. The Cross Sectional Area of the Ellipsoid tendons were determined using the formula: Area = π•AP radius•Transverse radius