Skip to main content

Advertisement

Table 3 Summary of kinetic data at initial contact (IC) and peak during weight acceptance (peak) for all subjects. Values are normalized to % body weight × height

From: The effect of foot landing position on biomechanical risk factors associated with anterior cruciate ligament injury

   IC Peak
Variable Foot Position Mean ± SD p Mean ± SD p
Trunk Flexion Moment Neutral -1.36 ± 3.60   7.37 ± 3.20  
  Toe-out -1.36 ± 2.52 1.00 6.57 ± 3.14 0.048*
  Toe-in -1.34 ± 2.31 0.987 6.87 ± 2.87 0.701
Trunk Lateral Moment Neutral 0.70 ± 6.56   5.49 ± 3.20  
  Toe-out 0.05 ± 5.02 0.698 5.58 ± 3.89 0.995
  Toe-in 0.12 ± 3.07 0.815 9.64 ± 5.29 0.092
Hip Flexion Moment Neutral 1.12 ± 8.60   13.70 ± 5.73  
  Toe-out -0.22 ± 7.40 0.917 14.04 ± 5.30 0.620
  Toe-in 2.67 ± 10.42 0.948 13.18 ± 4.40 0.767
Hip Adduction Moment Neutral -1.66 ± 3.57   3.73 ± 3.12  
  Toe-out -1.25 ± 4.58 0.374 2.58 ± 1.87 0.745
  Toe-in 0.42 ± 4.40 0.043* 5.26 ± 4.36 0.001*
Knee Flexion Moment Neutral 0.89 ± 3.81   13.95 ± 5.80  
  Toe-out 1.72 ± 4.15 0.447 14.89 ± 8.27 0.259
  Toe-in 0.46 ± 5.30 0.129 15.53 ± 8.21 0.0074*
Knee Abduction Moment Neutral 0.85 ± 1.72   4.85 ± 2.76  
  Toe-out 0.74 ± 2.10 0.935 5.19 ± 3.38 0.814
  Toe-in 1.31 ± 2.71 0.336 5.45 ± 4.12 0.314
Knee Internal Rotation Moment Neutral    0.94 ± 0.60  
  Toe-out    1.05 ± 1.13 < 0.001*
  Toe-in    1.22 ± 1.02 < 0.001*
Knee External Rotation Moment Neutral 0.18 ± 0.43   0.43 ± 0.34  
  Toe-out 0.18 ± 0.41 0.605 0.49 ± 0.32 0.519
  Toe-in 0.11 ± 0.47 0.628 0.15 ± 0.44 < 0.001*
Ankle Dorsiflexion Moment Neutral 1.64 ± 1.98   7.68 ± 2.93  
  Toe-out 1.72 ± 1.79 0.929 8.23 ± 3.58 0.784
  Toe-in 1.57 ± 1.91 0.925 8.68 ± 3.94 0.157
Foot Pronation Moment Neutral 1.31 ± 1.16   3.49 ± 1.37  
  Toe-out 1.55 ± 1.03 < 0.001* 3.88 ± 1.57 0.026*
  Toe-in 0.87 ± 0.86 < 0.001* 2.17 ± 1.00 < 0.001*
  1. p-values represent Tukey post-hoc comparisons to neutral foot landing position (95 % family-wise confidence level). *denotes statistical significance