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Table 2 Summary of kinematic data at initial contact (IC) and peak during weight acceptance (peak) for all subjects

From: The effect of foot landing position on biomechanical risk factors associated with anterior cruciate ligament injury

   IC Peak
Variable Foot Position Mean (°) ± SD p Mean (°) ± SD p
Trunk Flexion Angle Neutral 22.58 ± 7.08   35.26 ± 11.87  
  Toe-out 21.87 ± 7.10 0.544 34.25 ± 11.04 0.506
  Toe-in 22.21 ± 7.70 0.864 35.63 ± 14.10 1.00
Trunk Lateral Sway Angle Neutral 0.52 ± 3.00   2.19 ± 3.01  
  Toe-out 0.33 ± 2.71 0.900 2.44 ± 2.72 0.830
  Toe-in 0.68 ± 3.95 0.990 2.68 ± 3.70 0.703
Hip Flexion Angle Neutral 36.48 ± 6.52   74.24 ± 17.06  
  Toe-out 35.84 ± 7.18 0.941 74.93 ± 17.53 0.162
  Toe-in 36.48 ± 7.57 0.581 70.26 ± 19.45 < 0.001*
Hip Adduction Angle Neutral -7.72 ± 3.87   -3.73 ± 3.02  
  Toe-out -14.72 ± 3.77 < 0.001* -13.69 ± 3.40 < 0.001*
  Toe-in -1.86 ± 4.66 < 0.001* 3.46 ± 3.89 < 0.001*
Knee Flexion Angle Neutral 26.55 ± 5.23   90.44 ± 14.71  
  Toe-out 27.51 ± 5.57 0.362 92.69 ± 15.02 0.088
  Toe-in 26.56 ± 5.90 0.986 88.22 ± 16.00 0.023*
Knee Abduction Angle Neutral -3.62 ± 3.80   7.68 ± 7.54  
  Toe-out -6.09 ± 5.65 < 0.001* 4.84 ± 9.06 < 0.001*
  Toe-in 0.84 ± 5.96 < 0.001* 10.00 ± 8.43 < 0.001*
Knee Internal Rotation Angle Neutral 3.78 ± 6.35   15.11 ± 6.29  
  Toe-out 2.69 ± 7.48 < 0.001* 14.49 ± 7.55 < 0.001*
  Toe-in 11.94 ± 5.24 < 0.001* 18.08 ± 4.59 < 0.001*
Knee External Rotation Angle Neutral    -3.03 ± 4.22  
  Toe-out    3.08 ± 5.01 0.271
  Toe-in    -10.07 ± 1.54 < 0.001*
Ankle Dorsiflexion Angle Neutral -18.25 ± 13.35   20.95 ± 4.26  
  Toe-out -19.10 ± 13.74 0.852 18.43 ± 5.18 < 0.001*
  Toe-in -17.56 ± 12.06 0.977 23.87 ± 4.52 < 0.001*
Foot Pronation Angle Neutral 1.90 ± 5.04   12.53 ± 3.76  
  Toe-out 2.78 ± 6.91 0.026* 13.78 ± 3.52 0.108
  Toe-in -5.52 ± 6.64 < 0.001* 1.36 ± 6.83 < 0.001*
  1. p-values represent Tukey post-hoc comparisons to neutral foot landing position (95 % family-wise confidence level). *denotes statistical significance