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Fig. 2 | Journal of Experimental Orthopaedics

Fig. 2

From: Additional mesenchymal stem cell injection improves the outcomes of marrow stimulation combined with supramalleolar osteotomy in varus ankle osteoarthritis: short-term clinical results with second-look arthroscopic evaluation

Fig. 2

ad Arthroscopic views of left ankle in a 54-year-old male patient who underwent marrow stimulation alone combined with supramalleolar osteotomy. eh Arthroscopic views of the left ankle in a 52-year-old female patient who underwent mesenchymal stem cell injection and marrow stimulation combined with supramalleolar osteotomy. a, e Intraoperative arthroscopic findings showing a cartilage lesion with osteoarthritic change in the medial gutter area. b, f Arthroscopic views showing the perforation of the subchondral bone with a microfracture awl after the debridement of all unstable and damaged cartilage in the lesion. c, g Adequate bone bleeding at microfracture holes was confirmed after the tourniquet was released. d Second-look arthroscopy showing poor cartilage regeneration at the microfractured site (International Cartilage Repair Society [ICRS] grade IV). g Arthroscopic view after mesenchymal stem cell injection. h Second-look arthroscopy showing nearly normal coverage of the cartilage lesion (ICRS grade II)

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