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Table 1 A comparison of various models used in preclinical models for the assessment of biomaterial strategies for cartilage defect repair to the human knee joint

From: The benefits and limitations of animal models for translational research in cartilage repair

Species Breed Age of skeletal maturity Adult weight Cartilage thickness Calcified cartilage layer thickness Bone plate thickness Critical size defect References
Human   18–22 years 60–90 kg 2.4–2.6 mm 0.1 mm 0.2–0.5 mm 10 mm Chevrier (Chevrier et al. 2015), ASTM (Dahlin et al. 2014)
Rabbit New Zealand White 9 months 3–4 kg 0.16–0.75 mm 0.1–0.15 mm 0.4–0.5 mm 3 mm Chevrier (Chevrier et al. 2015). ASTM (Dahlin et al. 2014)
Dog Mongrel, Beagle 1–2 years 15–30 kg 0.95–1.3 mm - - 4 mm Ahern (Ahern et al. 2009), ASTM (Dahlin et al. 2014)
Mini-pig Gottingen Mini-pig, Yucatan, Lee-sung 10 months–1 year 20–40 kg 1.5 mm–2.0 mm - - 6 mm Ahern (Ahern et al. 2009), ASTM (Dahlin et al. 2014)
Pig Large White 2 years 250 kg 1.5 mm-2.0 mm - - 6 mm Ahern (Ahern et al. 2009), ASTM (Dahlin et al. 2014)
Goat Spanish, Dairy, Boer Cross, Saanan 2–3 years 40–70 kg 0.8–2 mm 0.2 mm 0.3 mm 6 mm Patil (Patil et al. 2014), ASTM (Dahlin et al. 2014), Frisbie (Frisbie et al. 2009),
Sheep Suffolk, Texel 2–3 years 35–80 kg 0.7–1.7 mm 0.2 mm 0.7 mm 7 mm Chevrier (Chevrier et al. 2015), ASTM (Dahlin et al. 2014)
Horse Mixed, Thoroughbred, Quarter Horse 2–4 years 500–600 kg 2.0–3.0 mm 0.2 mm 0.7 mm 9 mm Chevrier (Chevrier et al. 2015), ASTM (Dahlin et al. 2014)