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Table 3 The radiological results of all treatment groups

From: Experimental articular cartilage repair in the Göttingen minipig: the influence of multiple defects per knee

Treatment method Time-point Bone defect repair (CT) Repair tissue surface (MRI) Subchondral tissue – MRI and CT
Empty chondral defect, (Fig. 4a) 3 months NA Persistent full-diameter chondral defect Slight subchondral signal changes
6 months NA Small persistent chondral defect, with surface fissuring Slight subchondral signal changes
Autologous cartilage chips, (Fig. 4c) 3 months NA Intact surface, slightly irregular, with slight signal changes. No subchondral signal changes
6 months NA Intact surface, with slight signal changes. No subchondral signal changes
MFx, (Fig. 4b) 3 months NA Slight surface depression, and surface fissuring. Repair tissue non-cartilaginous, non-bony Signal changes around the MFx holes, and signs of subchondral cyst formation
6 months NA Slight surface depression. No surface fissuring. Repair tissue non-cartilaginous, non-bony Marked subchondral signal changes. No subchondral cyst formation
MACI, (Fig. 4d) 3 months NA Slight surface depression, but smooth surface covered with non-cartilaginous, non-bony tissue Subchondral signal changes
6 months NA Slight surface depression, but smooth surface covered with non-cartilaginous, non-bony tissue No subchondral signal changes
Empty Osteochondral defect, (Fig. 5a, d) 3 months 50 % Persistent defect Persistent bone defect. The surrounding bone were less dense than native subcortical bone
6 months 67 % Marked surface depression with non-cartilaginous, non-bony tissue Persistent bone defect. Sclerotic edge, and subchondral bone cyst formation
Autologous bone graft, (Fig. 5b, e) 3 months 63 % Slight surface depression. Repair tissue non-cartilaginous, non-bony Persistent bone defect, with fibrous repair tissue. No cyst formation or edema
6 months 76 % Slight surface depression. Repair tissue non-cartilaginous, non-bony Persistent bone defect with fibrous repair tissue. No cyst formation or edema
ADTT, (Fig. 5c, f) 3 months 83 % Slight surface depression. Defect partially covered by cartilage-like tissue Superficial fibrous tissue, with profound bone repair. Small persistent bone defect
6 months 92 % Slight surface depression. Defect almost completely covered with cartilage-like tissue Almost complete bone repair
  1. The repair tissue surface was assessed using MRI, while the subchondral tissue was assessed using MRI and CT. The bone defect repair percentage is a measure of the degree of repair compared to the original defect volume. MFx, Microfracture, MACI, Matrix-induced autologous chondrocyte implantation, ADTT, Autologous dual002Dtissue transplantation