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Table 2 The histological results of all treatment groups, assessed according to cellular morphology, GAG staining and repair tissue surface

From: Experimental articular cartilage repair in the Göttingen minipig: the influence of multiple defects per knee

Treatment Cellular Morphology GAG-Staining Repair tissue surface
Empty chondral defect (Fig. 3a) Mixture of fibrous tissue and fibrocartilage Negative Smooth, but depressed
Autologous cartilage chips (Fig. 3e) Predominantly fibrocartilage. Areas with hyaline-like tissue dispersed throughout the defect area Negative Smooth
MFx (Fig. 3c) Fibrocartilage <50 % Smooth, but depressed
MACI (Fig. 3d) Hyaline cartilage in the periphery, fibrocartilage in the center Negative Smooth, but depressed
Empty osteochondral defect (Fig. 3b) Predominantly fibrous tissue. Fibrocartilage present profoundly. Rich vascularity <10 % Smooth, but depressed
Autologous bone graft (Fig. 3f) Mixture of fibrous tissue and fibrocartilage. Rich vascularity <50 % Smooth, but depressed. Slight fissuring observed
ADTT (Fig. 3g) Hyaline cartilage and fibrocartilaginous tissue profoundly. Fibrocartilage and fibrous tissue superficially <50 % Smooth, but slightly depressed
  1. GAG, Glycosaminoglycan. GAG staining percentage was assessed semi-quantitatively. MFx, Microfracture, MACI, Matrix-induced autologous chondrocyte implantation, ADTT, Autologous dual-tissue transplantation