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Table 1 Description of the five different treatment groups and the empty chondral- and osteochondral control groups

From: Experimental articular cartilage repair in the Göttingen minipig: the influence of multiple defects per knee

Treatment Type n Details
Empty full-thickness chondral defect Full thickness chondral 3 Ø 6 mm full thickness chondral defect left untreated.
Autologous cartilage chips (ACC) Full thickness chondral 2 This treatment was applied to a full-thickness chondral defect. A 6 mm chondral defect was created using a skin biopsy punch, and the harvested cartilage was cut into chips approximately 0.5 mm2, using a scalpel. The cartilage chips were embedded in fibrin glue and added to the defect, secured using fibrin glue.
Microfracture (MFx) Full thickness chondral 3 The 6 mm defect was debrided so only the subchondral bony plate was left. Small perforations of the subchondral bone plate were made (Ø 1 mm), and the mesenchymal stem cells from the bone marrow cells were allowed to enter the full-thickness chondral defect.
Matrix-induced articular cartilage implantation (MACI) Full thickness chondral 2 A collagen I/III membrane seeded with autologous chondrocytes was placed in a full-thickness chondral defect and secured using suture. Cartilage biopsies were performed one month prior to the surgery. The cartilage biopsies were cultured as previously described (Christensen et al. [2012]; Hansen et al. [2013]), and seeded onto the collagen I/III membranes one week prior to the surgery.
Empty osteochondral defect Osteochondral 3 Ø 6 mm, 8 mm deep defect left untreated.
Autologous bone graft (ABG) Osteochondral 15 A drill hole was made using a hand drill to avoid heat damage. The bone was collected and morselized into a paste and press-fitted into the osteochondral defect. Finally, the defect was sealed using fibrin glue (Tissel Duo Quick, Baxter Denmark).
Autologous Dual-Tissue Transplantation (ADTT) Osteochondral 15 As above ABG is press-fitted into the osteochondral defect. A cartilage biopsy, taken before drilling, was cut into cartilage chips approximately 0.5 mm2 in size. The autologous cartilage chips (ACC) were then embedded in fibrin glue, and added onto the ABG