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Table 5 Results on changes in cellular and/or signaling response to BMMSC cultivated constructs under hydrostatic compression (Fig. 2). Sox9 is the gene that regulates chondrogenic differentiation; h is hours; h/day is hours per day; − is decrease or inhibition; and + is increase; ++ is highest increase; = is no change or status quo

From: What quantitative mechanical loading stimulates in vitro cultivation best?

Study Cell source, cultivated construct, additive(s) Magnitude (MPa) Freq (Hz) Loading (h/day) Loading (# days) Loading (total h) Culture composition (change -, =, +) mRNA response (change -, =, +)
Mesh
Wagner 2008 (Wagner et al. 2008) Human BMMSC, Mesh Collagen Type 1 50 mg/mL bovine serum albumin; 50 μg/mL L-ascorbic acid; 10−9 M dexamethasone 1 1 4 10 40 + proteoglycan + Sox9
+ aggrecan
+ collagen II
Luo 2007 (Luo and Seedhom 2007) Ovine BMMSC, Mesh non-woven filamentous plasma-treated polyester 10 % Fetal bovine serum; 50 μg/mL ascorbic acid; 10−7 M dexamethasone 0.1 0.25 0.5 7 3.5 + GAG  
= collagen
0.5 10 5 ++ GAG  
+ collagen
Gel
Miyanishi 2006a (Miyanishi et al. 2006a) Human BMMSC, Aggregate pellet 1.25 mg/mL bovine serum albumin; 50 μg/mL ascorbic acid; 10−7 M dexamethasone 0.1 1 4 14 56 = sGAG + Sox9
+ aggrecan
= collagen II
1 + sGAG ++ Sox9
+ aggrecan
= collagen II
10 ++ sGAG ++ Sox9
++ aggrecan
+ collagen II
Miyanishi 2006b (Miyanishi et al. 2006b) Human BMMSC, Aggregate pellet 1.25 mg/mL bovine serum albumin; 50 cpg/mL ascorbic acid; 10−7 M dexamethasone 10 1 4 14 56   + Sox9
+ aggrecan
+ collagen II
Angele 2003 (Angele et al. 2003) Human BMMSC, Aggregate pellet 10 % Fetal bovine serum 5.03 1 4 1 4 = proteoglycan  
= collagen
4 7 28 + proteoglycan  
+ collagen
Finger 2007 (Finger et al. 2007) Human BMMSC, Agarose gel Type VII Growth medium Cambrex 7.5 1 4 14 56   = Sox9