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Table 4 Results on changes in cellular, signaling and/or mechanical response to chondrocyte cultivated constructs for direct compression (Fig. 2). OA is osteoarthritis; MMP is matrix metalloproteinases; PG is proteoglycan; h is hours; h/day is hours per day; − is decrease or inhibition; + is increase; ++ is highest increase; = is no change or status quo. *-symbol implies pressure converted from strain, which is added in brackets,** -symbol is increase only present 12 h post stimulation, ^-symbol is increase only present after 6 h post stimulation

From: What quantitative mechanical loading stimulates in vitro cultivation best?

Study Cell source, cultivated construct, additive(s) Magnitude (MPa) Freq (Hz) Loading (h/day) Loading (# days) Loading (total h) Culture composition (change -, =, +) mRNA response (change -, =, +) Other findings (change -, =, +)
Nebelung 2012 (Nebelung et al. 2012) Human OA Hydrogel collagen type I 10 % Human serum 0.6-1.2* (10 %) 0.3 24 28 672 = proteoglycan = aggrecan = E-modulus
= collagen II + collagen II
  + MMP-13
Shelton 2003 (Shelton et al. 2003) Bovine, Agarose gel Type VII 20 % Fetal calf serum 1.7-2.9* (15 %) 0.3 24 2 48 - GAG   
1 + GAG   
3 = GAG   
Omata 2012 (Omata et al. 2012) Bovine, Agarose gel Type VII 20 % Fetal bovine serum; 0.85 mM L-ascorbic acid 1.7-2.9* (15 %) 1 6 22 132    + E-modulus
Hung 2004 (Hung et al. 2004) Bovine, Agarose gel Type VII 10 % Fetal bovine serum; growth factor: TGF-β1, IGF-1 0.6-1.2* (10 %) 1 3 3 9   + aggrecan = aggregate modulus
3 20 60    + E-modulus
+ aggregate modulus
Nicodemus 2010 (Nicodemus and Bryant 2010) Young bovine, Hydrogel polyethylene glycol, 5 % Fetal bovine serum; 50 mg/L L-ascorbic acid 1.2-2.4* (20 %) 0.3 24 7 168 + GAG + aggrecan  
- collagen II
- MMP-3
= MMP-13
6 7 42 = GAG = aggrecan  
+ collagen II
+ MMP-3, −13
Waldman 2004 (Waldman et al. 2004) Bovine, Monolayer on top of calcium polyphosphate mesh, 5 % Fetal bovine serum 0.3-0.6* (5 %) 1 .1 (400 cycles) 3.5 0.5 = PG synthesis   
++ coll. synthesis
0.6-1.2* (10 %) ++ PG synthesis   
1.2-2.4* (20 %) = coll. synthesis
0.3-0.6* (5 %) 0.6 (2000 cycles) 3.5 2 = PG synthesis   
+ coll. synthesis
0.6-1.2* (10 %)    + PG synthesis   
1.2-2.4* (20 %)   = coll. synthesis
0.3-0.6* (5 %) 1 0.1 7 1 = PG synthesis   = E-modulus
= coll. synthesis
0.1 14 2 + PG synthesis   + E-modulus
+ coll. synthesis
De Croos 2006 (De Croos et al. 2006) Bovine, Monolayer on top of calcium polyphosphate mesh 5 % Fetal bovine serum 0.001 1 <1 h 1 <1 h + PG synthesis ^ + aggrecan **  
+ coll. synthesis ^ + collagen II **
  + MMP-3, −13