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Table 3 Results on changes in cellular, signaling and/or mechanical response to chondrocyte cultivated constructs for hydrostatic compression (Fig. 2). PG is proteoglycan; MMP is matrix metalloproteinases; h is hours; h/day is hours per day;;- is decrease or inhibition; + is increase; ++ is highest increase; = is no change or status quo. *-symbol implies pressure converted from strain, which is added in brackets, **-symbol is increased aggrecan only with 4 h

From: What quantitative mechanical loading stimulates in vitro cultivation best?

Study Cell source, cultivated construct, additive(s) Magnitude (MPa) Freq (Hz) Loading (h/day) Loading (# days) Loading (total h) Culture composition (change -, =, +) mRNA response (change -, =, +) Other findings (change -, =, +)
Ikenoue 2003 (Ikenoue et al. 2003 ) Human Monolayer 10 % Fetal bovine serum 1 1 4 1 4   = aggrecan Loading of 16h gave better results compared to 4h
= collagen II
5 1   + aggrecan
10   = collagen II
1 1 4 4 16   + aggrecan
+ collagen II
5 1   + aggrecan
++ collagen II
10 1   ++ aggrecan
++ collagen II
Elder 2008 (Elder and Athanasiou 2008 ) Young bovine, Agarose gel, 20 % Fetal bovine serum; 50 μg/mL L-ascorbic acid 1 0.1 1 5 5 + GAG   = Aggregate modulus
= collagen II and # of cells = E-modulus
5 0.1 = GAG   + Aggregate modulus
= collagen II and # of cells = E-modulus
10 0.1 + GAG   = Aggregate modulus
= collagen II and # of cells ++ E-modulus
1 1 = GAG   + Aggregate modulus
= collagen II and # of cells   + E-modulus
5 1 = GAG   = Aggregate modulus
= collagen II and # of cells = E-modulus
10 1 ++ GAG   ++ Aggregate modulus
= collagen II and # of cells   ++ E-modulus
Hu 2006 (Hu and Athanasiou 2006 ) Young bovine, Agarose gel, 10 % Fetal bovine serum; 50 μg/mL L-ascorbic acid 10 1 4 40 160 = GAG (no loss) + collagen II   = Aggregate modulus
Mizuno 2011 (Mizuno and Ogawa 2011 ) Young bovine, Aggregate pellet, Collagen solution, 10 % Fetal bovine serum 0.5 0.5 24 7 168 + sGAG + aggrecan, + collagen II, + MMP-3, −13  
Kawanishi 2007 (Kawanishi et al. 2007 ) Young bovine, Aggregate pellet, 10 % Fetal bovine serum; 50μg/mL ascorbic acid 5 0.5 4 4 16 + GAG + aggrecan  
+ sGAG + collagen II
Suh 1999 (Suh et al. 1999 ) Bovine, Monolayer, 10 % Fetal bovine serum −0.08 vacuum 0.14 6 1 6 + PG synthesis + aggrecan  
= collagen synthesis = collagen II
Parkinnen 1993 (Parkkinen et al. 1993 ) Bovine, Monolayer, 10 % Fetal calf serum 5 0.5 1.5 1 1.5 - PG synthesis   
0.25
0.05
0.0167 = PG synthesis   
0.5 20 1 20 + PG synthesis   
0.25
0.05 = PG synthesis   
0.0167 - PG synthesis
0.0082 = PG synthesis   
0.0034
Jortikka 2000 (Jortikka et al. 2000 ) Bovine, Monolayer, 10 % Fetal bovine serum 5 0.5 20 1 20 + PG synthesis   
Smith 1996 (Smith et al. 1996 ) Bovine, Monolayer Ham’s F-12 medium; 3 % Fetal bovine serum 10 1 4 1 4 + PG synthesis + aggrecan  
+ collagen II
Smith 2000 (Smith et al. 2000 ) Bovine, Monolayer, Ham’s F-12 medium 10 1 2,4,8,12, 24 1 2,4,8,12, 24   + aggrecan**, + collagen II Superior increase compared to one loading period
4 4 16   ++ aggrecan, ++ collagen II
Heyland 2006 (Heyland et al. 2006 ) Porcine chondrocytes, Beads alginate, 10 % Fetal bovine serum 0.3 0.0083 6 4 24 + GAG, = collagen II   
6 7 42 = GAG, + collagen II   = E-modulus