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Table 2 Results on changes in cellular, signaling and/or mechanical response to chondrocyte-seeded meshes for hydrostatic and direct compression (Fig. 2). PGA is polyglycolic acid; PEGT/PBT is polyethylene glycol terephthalate/polybutylene terephthalate; Sox9 is the gene that regulates chondrogenic differentiation; # is number; h is hours; h/day is hours per day; − is decrease or inhibition; = is no change or status quo; + is increase; ++ is highest increase. *-symbol implies pressure converted from strain, which is added in brackets; **loading was performed every other day for 1 h twice a day with 8 h rest in between

From: What quantitative mechanical loading stimulates in vitro cultivation best?

Study Cell source, cultivated construct, additive(s) Magnitude (MPa) Freq (Hz) Loading (h/day) Loading (# days) Loading (total h) Culture composition (change -, =, +) mRNA response (change -, =, +) Other findings (change -, =, +)
Hydrostatic compression
Carver 1999a (Carver and Heath 1999a) Young equine Mesh nonwoven PGA 10 % Fetal bovine serum; 50 μg/mL ascorbic acid 3.4 0.25 2 35 70 + GAG   GAG increase strongest at 6.9 MPa for young
= collagen II
= # of chondrocytes
6.9 + GAG  
+ collagen II
= # of chondrocytes
Adult equine Mesh nonwoven PGA 10 % Fetal bovine serum; 50 μg/mL ascorbic acid 3.4 + GAG   Collagen II increase strongest at 6.9 MPa for young and adult
+ collagen II
= # of chondrocytes
6.9 = GAG  
+ collagen II
= # of chondrocytes
Carver 1999b (Carver and Heath 1999b) Young equine Mesh nonwoven PGA 10 % Fetal bovine serum; 50 μg/mL ascorbic acid 3.44 0.25 2 35 70 + GAG   + E- modulus
+ collagen
= # of chondrocytes
Direct compression
Démarteau 2003 (Démarteau et al. 2003) Human Mesh PEGT/PBT Foam 10 % Fetal bovine serum; growth factor TGF-β1, FGF-2, PDGFbb 0.3-0.6* (5 %) 0.1 4 3 12 + GAG = Sox9 Measured peak loading 0.018 MPa
= aggrecan
= collagen II
Hilz 2014 (Hilz et al. 2014) Bovine, Mesh Polyurethane 25 % Fetal calf serum;50 μg/mL L-ascorbic acid 1.2-2.4* (20 %) 1 2** 21 16 + GAG =Sox9  
+ aggrecan +collagen II
+ collagen II
El-ayoubi 2011 (El-Ayoubi et al. 2011) Canine, Mesh poly-L-Lactide 10 % Fetal bovine serum 0.6-1.2* (10 %) 1 3 14 42 + # of cells