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Table 1 Results on changes in cellular, signaling and/or mechanical response to explants for hydrostatic and direct compression (Fig. 2). PG is proteoglycan; MMP is matrix metalloproteinases; # is number; h is hours; h/day is hours per day; − is decrease or inhibition; = is no change or status quo; + is increase; ++ is highest increase. *-symbol implies pressure converted from strain, which is added in brackets

From: What quantitative mechanical loading stimulates in vitro cultivation best?

Study Cell source, cultivated construct, additive(s) Magnitude (MPa) Freq (Hz) Loading (h/day) Loading (# days) Loading (total h) Culture composition (change -, =, +) mRNA response (change -, =, +) Other findings (change -, =, +)
Hydrostatic compression
Parkinnen 1993 (Parkkinen et al. 1993) Bovine 5 0.5 1.5 1 1.5 + PG synthesis   
Explant 0.25
Fetal calf serum 0.05 = PG synthesis   
  0.0167
Direct compression
Li 2013 (Li et al. 2013) Young Bovine Bruised Explant Serum free medium, 20 g/ml ascorbic acid 0.6-1.2* (10 %) 0.5 4 4 16 + PG synthesis + aggrecan Control show better results compared to bruised explants
+ collagen II
1.2-2.4* (20 %) ++ PG synthesis ++ aggrecan
++ collagen II
1.8-3.6* (30 %) + PG synthesis + aggrecan
= collagen II
Okuda 2013 (Okuda et al. 2013) Young Bovine, Explant 20 % Fetal bovine serum; 50 mg/L L-ascorbic acid 0.6-1.2* (10 %) 1 3.5 5 17.5 + sGAG   + compressive modulus
+ # of cells
Torzilli 1996 (Torzilli et al. 1996) Bovine, Explant 10 % Fetal bovine serum; 50 μg/mL ascorbic acid 1 1 24 1 24 - PG synthesis   
Torzilli 2011 (Torzilli et al. 2011) Bovine, Explant 10 % Fetal bovine serum; 50 μg/mL ascorbic acid 0.5 (10 %) 0.5 24 3 72 = PG content = MMP −3, −13