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Table 3 Comparison of probabilities of potential pitfalls among sheep and humans (adapted from (Pape & Madry 2013) with permission)

From: Large animal models in experimental knee sports surgery: focus on clinical translation

Structure involved Human Sheep
Neurologic injuries ++ NR
Osteonecrosis of proximal fragment ++ NR
Fracture through proximal fragment with violation of joint space ++ NR
Infection + +++
Vessel injury + ++
Subchondral bone cysts (tibial head) without screw perforation NR +
Compartment syndrome + NR
Non-union + NR
Loss of correction due to implant failure # +
Overcorrection # NR
  1. “NR” not reported; + seldom, ++ infrequent, +++ frequent, # may depend on implant design (Song et al. 2010).