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Table 2 Summary of the findings from in vitro and in vivo evidence concerning the application of PRP in cartilage pathology

From: Platelet-rich plasma to treat ankle cartilage pathology - from translational potential to clinical evidence: a systematic review

IN VITRO EVIDENCE
PRP EFFECTS ON… Chondrocytes culture [ 3 , 25 - 27 ] - Increase chondrocyte proliferation rate
- Stimulate chondrocyte phenotype expression and mainteinance
- Increase matrix molecules production
- Overall reduction of inflammatory response
Condrocytes + MSC culture [ 3 , 29 ] - Promotion of MSCs proliferation, adhesion and migration
- Increased expression of Collagen II
Synovial Cells culture [ 3 , 28 ] - Anti or pro-flogistic effects demonstrated, according to the particular PRP formulation used
Meniscal cells culture [ 3 , 30 ] - Increase in meniscal cell proliferation rate
- Stimulation of GAG synthesis
Stem Cells culture [ 3 , 24 , 29 ] - Stimulation of migration and chondrogenic differentiation of cortico-spongious bone cells
- Superior chondrogenic differentiation of BMSCs
- Enhanced proliferation rate and retained chondrogenic differentiation potential of ADMSCs
- Increase in proliferation and migration induction of peripheral blood and umbilical cord blood MSCs
Bacterial culture [ 40 ] - PRP is able to provide an early protection against bacterial contamination due to the release of antimicrobial proteins
ANIMAL MODELS
PRP EFFECTS ON… Rats [ 31 ] - In chondral lesion model: PRP improves tissue healing and collagen II expression
- In OA model: controversial results regarding chondroprotective effects
Rabbit [ 32 , 33 , 36 ] - In Osteochondral lesion: no macroscopic, microscopic and biomechanical benefit after PRP administration
- In OA model: positive influence on cartilage degeneration process (especially in moderate OA)
Sheep [ 35 ] - In chondral lesion model: improvement in macroscopic, histologic, and biomechanical cartilage scores. Beneficial effects also when applied together with microfractures
Pig [ 37 ] - In Rheumatoid Arthritis model: overall reduction in pro-flogistic enzymes and molecules; chondroprotective effect
Horse [ 34 ] - In OA model: positive modulation of joint homeostasis, with reduction of lameness and joint effusion up to middle term evaluation